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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
试题内容
Keep Our Seas Clean    By the year 2050 it is estimated that the world’s population could have increased to around l2 billion. Of these, some 60 percent will live within 60 km of the sea. The agricultural and industrial activities required to support this population will increase the already significant pressures on fertile coastal areas. Death and disease caused by polluted coastal waters costs the global economy US$12. 8 billion a year. Plastic waste kills up to l million sea birds. 100. 000 sea mammals and countless fish each year. 
Pollution & the sea-like oil and water
A) One significant impact of human activity is marine pollution. The most visible and familiar is oil pollution caused by tanker accidents and tank washing at sea, and in addition to the gross visible short-term impacts, severe long-term problems can also result. In the case of the Exxon Valdez which ran onto a shore in Alaska in 1989. Biological impacts from the oil spill can still be identified l5 years after the event. The Prestige which sank off the Spanish coast late in 2002, resulted in huge economic losses as it polluted more than l00 beaches in France and Spain and effectively destroyed the local fishing industry. 
B) Despite the scale and visibility of such impacts, the total quantities of pollutants entering the sea from the long line of catastrophic oil spills appeared small compared with those of pollutants introduced directly and indirectly from other sources(including domestic sewage, industrial discharges, leakages from waste tips, urban and industrial ran-off, accidents, spillages, explosions, sea dumping operations, oil production, mining, agriculture nutrients and pesticides, waste heat sources, and radioactive discharges). Land based sources are estimated to account for around 44 percent of the pollutants entering the sea and atmospheric inputs account for an estimated 33 percent. By contrast, transport on the sea accounts for l2 percent. 
Dawn of the dead: Creeping dead zones
C) The impacts of pollution vary. Nutrient pollution from sewage discharges and agriculture can result in unsightly and possibly dangerous “blooms” of algae(藻类)in coastal waters. As these blooms die and decay they use up the oxygen in the water. This has led, in some areas, to “creeping dead zones” (CDZ), where oxygen dissolved in the water falls to levels unable to sustain marine life. Industrial pollution also contributes to these dead zones. 
Gone fission(裂变)
D) Radioactive(放射性的)pollution has many causes, including the normal operation of nuclear power stations, but by far the single biggest sources of man-made radioactive elements in the sea are the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague in France and at Sellafield in the UK. Waste released from them has resulted in the widespread pollution of living marine resources over a wide area; radioactive elements traceable to reprocessing can be found in seaweeds as far away as the West Greenland Coast. 
Heavy Metal
E) Trace metal pollution from metal mining, production and processing industries can damage the health of marine plants and animals and render some seafoods unfit for human consumption. The contribution of human activities can be very significant:the amount of mercury introduced to the environment by industrial activities is around four times the amount released through natural processes such as weathering and erosion(腐蚀). The input of man-made chemicals to the oceans potentially involves an overwhelming number of different substances. 63, 000 different chemicals are thought to be in use worldwide with 3, 000 accounting for 90 percent of the total production amount. Each year, anywhere up to1,000 new synthetic chemicals may be brought onto the market. Of all these chemicals some 4,500 fall into the most serious category. These are known as persistent organic pollutants(POPs). They’re resistant to breakdown and have the potential to accumulate in the tissues of living organisms (all marine life), causing hormone disruption which can, in turn, cause reproductive problems, induce cancer, suppress the immune system and interfere with normal mental development in children. 
F) POPs can also be transported long distances in the atmosphere and deposited in cold regions. As a result, Inuit populations who live in the Arctic a long distance from the sources of these pollutants are among the most severely influenced people on the planet, since they rely on fat-rich marine food sources such as fish and seals. POPs are also thought to be responsible for some polar bear populations failing to reproduce normally. 
Are you eating fish ‘n’ POPs tonight?
G) Scarily, seafoods consumed by people living in warm and mild regions are also affected by POPs. Oily fish tend to accumulate POPs in their bodies and these can be passed to human consumers. When oily fish are rendered down into fish meal and fish oils and subsequently used to feed other animals, then this too can act as a pathway to humans. Farmed fish and shellfish, dairy cattle, poultry and pigs are all fed fish meal in certain countries, and so meat and dairy products as well as fanned and wild fish can act as further sources of these chemicals to humans. 
Pollution Superhighway—North and Baltic Seas
H) The Noah and Baltic Seas also contain some of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. 200, 000 ships cross the North Sea every year. Many goods transported by ships are hazardous(half the goods carded at sea can be described as dangerous)and loss of dangerous cargoes can result in damage to the marine environment. Chemical tank washings, discharge of oily wastes and wash waters are all significant sources of marine pollution. In addition there is always the risk of a major oil spill, a risk made worse by the fact that some of the tankers that routinely travel through still have only one body-frame or have other technical defects and crews who are poorly educated. In November 2002, the Prestige oil tanker went down off the coast of Spain with70, 000 tons of oil on board which polluted 2,890 km of coastline. A few days earlier it had been crossing the Baltic. 
Solutions
I) Some sources of pollution have been brought under control by international legislation. Countries which signed the London Convention have agreed to stop the dumping of radioactive and industrial waste at sea. The OSPAR Convention regulates marine pollution in the North East Atlantic Region while countries which signed the Stockholm Convention have committed themselves to the phase out of a number of persistent organic pollutants. Within the European Community, the Water Framework Directive may be expected to bring further reductions in polluting inputs, although it will be over a very long time frame. The additional benefit of the new EU REACH(Registration Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) initiative, which aims to regulate the production and use of dangerous chemicals at source, remains to be seen.
1.[选词填空]Oil pollution is mentioned as the most visible and familiar marine pollution.
    • 解题思路:由题干中the most visible and familiar marine pollution定位至A段。由本段可知,最常见的海洋污染是石油污染。故匹配段落为A段。
    2.[选词填空]About one-third of the pollutants entering the sea come from atmospheric inputs.
      • 解题思路:由题干中one-third of the pollutants定位至B段。本句指出,进入海洋的污染物中,有33%来自atmospheric inputs;about one-third(三分之一)与原文该句中的33 percent(33%)所指的比率相同。故匹配段落为B段。
      3.[选词填空]The Inuit people depend on fat-rich marine life for food.
        • 解题思路:由题干中Inuit people定位至F段。由本段可知,在全世界,住在北极地区的因纽特人受污染物影响最严重,因为他们以鱼类或海豹等富含脂肪的海洋生物为生(they rely on fat-rich marine food sources)。故匹配段落为F段。
        4.[选词填空]Hormone disruption in marine life is the result of accumulation of POPs.
          • 解题思路:由题干中Hormone disruption定位至E段。本段讲到,它们(POPs)会在生物体内聚集,导致荷尔蒙混乱,故匹配段落为E段。
          5.[选词填空]4500 synthetic chemicals can be classified as POPs
            • 解题思路:由题干中POPs定位至E段。本段指出,有4,500种化学物质是最危险的种类,这些物质被称为“持久性污染物(POPs)”,故匹配段落为E段。
            6.[选词填空]The regulation of marine pollution in the North East Atlantic Region is based on the OSPAR Convention.
              • 解题思路:由题干中the North East Atlantic Region定位至I段。由本段可知,是The OSPAR Convention管理东北大西洋地区海洋污染,故匹配段落为I段。
              7.[选词填空]Marine life dies in creeping dead zones because of the lack of oxygen.
                • 解题思路:由题干中creeping dead zones定位至C段。本段指出,这些海洋生物在死亡和腐烂的过程中会耗完水中的氧(use up the oxygen),这样就会导致死区的出现。由此可知,死区的出现是因为缺氧,故匹配段落为C段。
                8.[选词填空]In warm and mild regions, farmed fish and shellfish are also affected by POPs because they are fed fish meal.
                  • 解题思路:由题干中farmed fish and shellfish定位至G段。本段明确指出,在某些国家,养殖鱼或养殖贝壳等都是喂鱼粉饲料(are all fed fish meal),因此它们也会受到污染。故匹配段落为G段。
                  9.[选词填空]As long as 2890 km of coastline had been polluted by the oil spill of the Prestige oil tanker.
                    • 解题思路:由题干中2890 km定位至H段。本段讲到,the Prestige oil tanker于2002年11月载着7万吨石油驶离西班牙海岸的时候,污染了2890千米的海岸线。故匹配段落为H段。
                    10.[选词填空]The West Greenland Coast has been polluted by radioactive elements.
                      • 解题思路:由题干中The West Greenland Coast定位至D段。本段明确指出,人们在the West Greenland Coast的海草中发现了放射性元素,也就是说,该区域受到放射性元素的污染,故匹配段落为D段。
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                      • 参考答案:A,B,F,E,E,I,C,G,H,D