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    The idea of public works projects as a device to prevent or control depression was designed as means of creating job opportunities for unemployed workers and as a "pump priming" device to aid business to revive. It was conceived during the early year as of the New Deal Era (1933-1937.. By 1933, the number of unemployed workers had reached about 13 million. This meant that about 50 million people--about one third of the nation--were without means of support. At first, direct relief in the form of cash or food was provided for these people. This made them recipients (接收者. of government charity. In order to remove this stigma  (耻辱.and restore to the unemployed some measure of respectability and human dignity, a plan was devised to create govern mentally sponsored work projects that private industry would not or could not provide. This would also stimulate production and revive business activity. 
    The best way to explain how this procedure is expected to work is to explain how it actually worked when it was first tried. The first experiment with it was the creation of the Works Project Administration (WPA).This agency set up work projects in various fields in which there were many unemployed. For example,unemployed actors were organized into theater projects; orchestras were organized for unemployed musicians,teaching projects for unemployed teachers, and even Writers' projects for unemployed writers. Unemployed laborers were put to building work or maintaining roads, parks, playgrounds, or public buildings. These were all temporary "work relief" projects rather than permanent work opportunities. 
    More substantial work projects of a permanent nature were organized by another agency, the Public Works Administration (PWA). This agency undertook the planning of construction of schools, houses, post offices, dams, and other public structures. It entered into contracts with private construction firms to erect them, or it loaned money to local or state governments which undertook their construction. This created many jobs in the factories producing the material as well as in the projects themselves, and greatly reduced the number of the unemployed. 
    Still another agency which provided work projects for the unemployed was the Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC). This agency provided job opportunities for youths aged 16 to 20 to work in national parks or forests clearing land, guarding against fires, building roads, or doing other conservation work. In the event of a future depression, the federal government might revive any or all of the above methods to relieve unemployment and stimulate business. 

1.[单选题]The Works Project Administration could __
  • A.relieve the burden of both the unemployed and the government
  • B.satisfy the need of people from various fields of the society
  • C.meet the need of most people who were once white-collars
  • D.offer people no jobs which would support them for a whole life
  • 解题思路:根据题干信息词Works Project Admini Stration定位到第二段。由第二段最后一句可知: “这些都是暂时性的‘工作救济’项目,而不是永久性的工作机会。”显然D项符合文意,为正确答案。本段第三句虽然说到就业项目得以在失业人数众多的各个领域设立,但并未提到能满足社会各领域人们的需求,故B项排除。A、C两项在文中未提及。
2.[单选题]The Civilian Conservation Corps mainly offered jobs __
  • A.to give more opportunities to various age groups
  • B.to foster the spirit of American youths
  • C.that are laborious to youngsters
  • D.under the name of relieving family burdens
  • 解题思路:根据题干信息词Civilian Conservmion Corps定位到最后一段。关于该组织,本段第二句介绍说: “这家机构为年龄介于16岁到20岁之间的青年提供工作机会,让他们在国家公园或森林清理土地、防火、修路或从事其他保护工作。”由此可见,该机构给年轻人提供工作,从列举的工作看多属于艰苦的体力劳动,因此c项与文意相符,故为答案。
3.[单选题]It was at the beginning of the New Deal Era that public works projects __
  • A.were ignored by most American socialists
  • B. proved its advantages over other plans
  • C.were given a serious consideration
  • D.were put into use immediately
  • 解题思路:根据题干信息词the New Deal Era定位到第一段第二句。由该句可知公共事业项目 “这种设想是在施行罗斯福新政的早期形成的”。原文conceive意为“构思”,选项c中的give a serious consideration和conceive相对应,故该项为正确答案。
4.[单选题]Compared with WPA, the Public Works Administration
  • A.got private businesses involved in the restoring of economy
  • B.encouraged the local governments to make concrete plans
  • C.offered jobs in all the aspects conceming construction
  • D.stimulated the economy by lending money to local governments
  • 解题思路:根据题干信息词the Public Works Administration定位到第三段。本段第三句说: “它与私营建筑公司签订建筑合同让其承建,或贷款给承担建设项目的地方政府或州政府。”由此可见,PwA通过签订合同的方式,将私营公司引入公共建设项目,促进就业和经济的发展,显然A项符合文意,故为答案。 
5.[单选题]According to the passage, during the New Deal Era, the public works projects might __
  • A.make a great leap in guiding the economic development
  • B.help those unemployed to resume respect and dignity
  • C.urge private businesses to employ more workers
  • D.prevent government from lending money to the unemployed
  • 解题思路:根据题干信息词the public works projects定位到第一段倒数第二句。关于公共事业项目的作用,该句说: “为了消除失业者的耻辱感并在某种程度上恢复他们的声誉和人格尊严,政府制订了一项计划,即创立由政府赞助的、私人企业不会或不能提供的就业工程。”由此可见,该计划旨在帮助失业者恢复应受的尊敬和人格尊严。显然B项resume respect and dignity与原文restore…respectability and human dignity意思相符,故B项为正确答案。
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  • 参考答案:D,A,C,A,B